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Pierre Soulages

1919 - 2022

Light, as I use it, is matter

Born in Rodez in 1919, Pierre Soulages is the greatest living French painter, celebrated for his radical body of work which explores the multiple possibilities of light offered by the colour black. Alongside Georges Mathieu and Hans Hartung, he was one of the pioneers of lyrical abstraction, which emerged in Paris immediately after the war.

Soulages began to paint at a young age. He was influenced by the wall art of his native region and by Romanesque architecture, such as the abbey of Conques, whose stained-glass windows oriented him towards the question of light, which would become a constant dimension of his work. Admitted to the Beaux-Arts in Paris at the age of 20, he quickly gave up his training,
which struck him as too conformist. Before returning to Rodez, he had time to discover modern art and the painting of Cézanne and Picasso, which made a great impression on him. Having gradually encountered abstract art, he subscribed definitively to it at the end of the war, when he returned to Paris and devoted himself to painting.

From 1947, Soulages began to make use of walnut stain. Applied using the tools of industrial painters, this fluid material produced a powerful contrast with the whiteness of the surrounding paper. The compositions are made of networks of brown lines with a sober, stripped-back appearance. Presented for the first time at the Salon des Surindépendants in 1947, these innovative works attracted attention and praise from his peers, but also from the critics. One of them was chosen in 1948 to appear on the poster of “Wanderausstellung französischer abstrakter Malerei,” the first German collective exhibition devoted to abstract art since the end of the war.

Soulages’ painting bears no relationship to reality. As he conceived it as early as 1948, his painting was “an organisation, a set of relationships between shapes (lines, coloured surfaces, etc.), on which the meanings which we give it are made and undone.” No representation of the world, no signs, no symbols, but the presence of the world, still and silent, rooted in matter. Recognised early on as one of the pioneers of lyrical abstraction, whilst producing a singularly different body of work, Soulages fully inscribed his painting in the debate about abstraction’s relationship to reality, which shook up the post-war artistic scene.

In 1949, his first solo exhibition was held at the Lydia Conti gallery. His career was launched and soon blossomed beyond national borders, especially in the United States. Supported by James Johnson Sweeney, he took part in the travelling exhibition “Advancing French Art” in 1953, the “Younger European Artists” exhibition at the Guggenheim Museum in 1954 and “The New Decade” at MOMA in New York.

After these decisive years, which saw him become one of the leading figures of the avant-garde, Soulages continued his pictorial quest and explored new directions. Alongside his black compositions on light backgrounds, new compositions appeared where black was combined with other colours. The palette remains deliberately limited but produces immensely subtle harmonies between contrast and transparency.

1979 marked the beginning of the “Outrenoir” series, the most famous of the Soulages’ career, and undoubtedly its culmination. The black colour henceforth completely covered the surface of the canvas. Using tools that Soulages invented himself, the pictorial material was applied in thick layers and in successive passages to create different surface states, flattened, streaked, stripy, textured, a whole vocabulary of materiality that structures a space with an undeniably sculptural dimension. On this entirely black surface, light springs forth and is proposed in all its variations to the eyes of the person who looks at it. Henceforth inseparable, black and light come together in the Soulages’ painting, which carries within it a universal mystery that never ceases to raise questions.

In 2014, Soulages’ work was celebrated by the opening of a museum in his hometown following a major donation. On the occasion of his centenary in 2019, the Louvre devoted a retrospective to him during his lifetime, a tribute and privilege that only Marc Chagall and Pablo Picasso had received before him. More than a hundred public collections around the world include Pierre Soulages’ work, amongst which the most important are the Centre Pompidou and the Musée d’Art Moderne in Paris, the Tate gallery in London, the MOMA and the Solomon R. Guggenheim in New York.

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“The work lives by the gaze that is trained on it. It is not limited to what it is or to who produced it, it is also made up of those who look at it. My painting is a space of questioning and meditation in which the meanings which we give it are made and undone.”

Pierre Soulages


Pierre Soulages

Peinture 35 x 55 cm, May 29th, 1987
Oil and acrylic on canvas
35 x 55 cm | 13 3/4 x 21 5/8 in.


Art Fairs


VASARELY BEFORE THE OP: European abstraction, 1945-1955

17 June to 15 October 2023

Fondation Vasarely, Aix-En-Provence

The Vasarely Foundation continues its partnership with the Centre Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne-Centre de création industrielle for the 4th consecutive year, with the summer exhibition “Vasarely avant l’Op, une abstraction européenne, 1945-1955”. From June 17 to October 15, 2023, a selection of 35 major works on loan from the Paris museum, the Musée départemental […]

VASARELY BEFORE THE OP: European abstraction, 1945-1955

At the heart of Abstraction Works from the collection of the Fondation Gandur pour l’Art

July 2 - November 22, 2022

Fondation Maeght

The exhibition at the Fondation Maeght will show works from the collection of the Fondation Gandur pour l’Art from the 2nd of July until the 20th of November 2022 and offers an immersion in the vibrant creation of the years 1945 to 1980. Home to a collection of more than 13,000 works, Fondation Maeght is […]

At the heart of Abstraction Works from the collection of the Fondation Gandur pour l’Art

La luce nel nero

15 April 2022 – 28 August 2022

Fondazione Palazzo Albizzini Collezione Burri

“La Luce del Nero” is the title of the upcoming exhibition hosted in one of the two museums of Fondazione Burri, the Ex Seccatoi del Tabacco in Città di Castello, Italy. Here, the color Black shifts from the concept of dark and absence to becoming an actual color. This event has been designed to be […]

La luce nel nero

ELOGE DE LA LUMIÈRE – IN PRAISE OF LIGHT Pierre Soulages – Tanabe Chikuunsai IV

November 17, 2021 - March 27, 2022

Fondation Baur, Geneva

Tenmoku bowls with iridescent reflections, “mirror black” porcelains, and lacquer objects with shimmering surfaces, worked in depth: in capturing the light cast by the night, certain works reveal and exalt the colours of the shadows. It is in the wake of this chiaroscuro heritage that the collections of the Baur Foundation, rich in rare pearls, […]

ELOGE DE LA LUMIÈRE – IN PRAISE OF LIGHT  Pierre Soulages – Tanabe Chikuunsai IV

Calder, Soulages, Vasarely,… Abstractions plurielles (1950-1980)

March 2 - November 21, 2021

Musée d'art de Pully

Le Musée d’art de Pully collabore avec la Fondation Gandur pour l’Art autour d’une exposition consacrée à la peinture informelle des années 1950 à 1980. Les années qui suivent la Seconde Guerre mondiale connaissent une grande effervescence artistique. Paris reprend rapidement sa place de capitale culturelle et attire des peintres du monde entier. La tendance […]

Calder, Soulages, Vasarely,… Abstractions plurielles (1950-1980)

Soulages at the Louvre

December 11, 2019 – March 9, 2020

Musée du Louvre, Paris

Pierre Soulages, “painter of black and light,” is a major figure of non-figurative painting, recognized as such since the start of his career after World War II. Born on December 24, 1919, in Rodez (south of France), Soulages, who continues to produce work at a steady pace, is celebrating his 100th birthday at the end […]

Soulages at the Louvre

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